|Clave / id||Museo/tipo||Resumen EN||Descripción EN||Editar|
|The first Chichimeca city in the Valley of Mexico, before they settled in Texcoco. An impressive pyramid with two temples on the top (for Tlaloc and Huitzilopochtli), inspired by the great Tenochteca Teocalli. The museum reconstructs the city and narrates its history from the 12th century A.D.||Editar|
|Extraordinary Maya city which grew to be the most populated and important city in Mesoamerica 1,500 years ago. Its magnificent pyramids (among the highest) with relief work, sculpture and pottery, as well as the museum's rich collection, amaze visitors to the archeological zone.|
The Tonina Site Museum’s extensive archeological collection gives insight into the political and social life of the people, as well as everyday living. The display of artefacts from the Mayan settlement relate to both history and mythology, with a focus on the sacred text of the Popol Vuh. The aim is to promote awareness of the culture surrounding the Mayan creation myth. The museum was opened to the public in July 2000 by Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León, who was president at the time.
The museum space quickly became too small to receive the number of finds which kept arriving from the excavations, and in 1998 it became evident that a new building was needed. Zacatecas-born architect José Carlos Lozano was in charge of the design and construction, supported by the archeologist Yadeun Angulo, and the result of their partnership was to incorporate the majority of the elements of Mayan architecture into the museum design. One example is the “T” shaped windows in the building, a symbol representing Ik, the god of the wind. The building not only stores a vast collection of finds from over 30 years of excavations, but it is also a research center serving the community in general, especially through education.
|The Olmeca region with the longest register of continuous occupation. The museum contains the oldest stele in Central America: an extraordinary stone with a “long sum” of the whole calendar, and other testimonies of these extraordinary sculptors and metal workers of the earliest civilization.||Editar|
|Shows the development of the Tarascan capital and its inhabitants who were notable silver and goldsmiths, potters, unvanquished warriors and builders of yacatas (round based temples). A glimpse of the religion, wars and working lives of these town dwellers.||Despite the fact that the archeological site of Tzintzuntzan has been excavated since the nineteenth century, and quite intensively in the twentieth century, it was not until 1992 that a small introductory gallery to the site displaying a few pieces was built through joint efforts prompted by the archeologist Efraín Cárdenas. This was the first site museum at Tzintzuntzan and it was located at the northeast corner of the Great Platform.|
Over the next 20 years there were several efforts to extend and improve this small museum until 2012 when a plan was prepared for a new exhibition space just a few yards away from the old one. This was a Michoacan Special Project, managed by the archeologist Olga Lidia Landa. The building was constructed on the property known as La Tira and it was designed by the architects Salvador Aceves and Saúl Alcántara, who were inspired by the forms and lines of the yacatas, multi-level structures with several circular-plan temples on top of a great rectangular plinth. The new space resulting from this work was opened, but for various reasons it was not possible to complete the proposed exhibition.
A new and more complete exhibition was opened in 2014 thanks to the impulse of the Michoacan INAH Center and the INAH's National Museums and Exhibitions Office. The original desire was to extend the scope beyond the archeological site and this has now been satisfied with a portrayal of the complex social panorama of the Tarascan state and an interesting case study of the early viceregal period. The aim was also to incorporate all the previously built spaces on the archeological site. The old site museum became an audio-visual room introducing the history of the archeological site, while the new building employs attractive displays to highlight some of the most important archeological finds from the Tarascan era, and an audio-visual room is used to provide complementary information on the complex stratification of Tarascan society at the end of the pre-Hispanic period. Meanwhile the old cabin built in the first half of the twentieth century beside Yacata 5 was renovated in 2015 so that one of its areas could be used as a temporary exhibition gallery. This has already displayed various excavation and research projects from Tzintzuntzan and other sites in the state of Michoacan.
Today visitors can see ceramic pieces such as patojos (foot-shaped receptacles), tripod vessels and stirrup-handled pots with spouts, all of which are typical of Tarascan culture. There are also axes, hatchets, needles, rattles and ornaments made from bronze (an alloy of copper and tin), labrets, polished obsidian ear flares (some with embedded turquoise), stone points and knives, other stone artifacts and rock carvings. All these materials give a general picture of the culture of the upper strata of Tarascan society and we can understand them as part of everyday life, rituals, religious practices and crafts when examined in conjunction with various pages of La Relación de Michoacán ("An Account of Michoacan"). The tour concludes with the end of the empire and the arrival of the Spanish, a period which is represented through contemporary objects, and we can get a glimpse of the part of the sixteenth century when both groups lived in this ancient city.
All the material exhibited in this museum, as well as the interpretation, is continually updated in the light of new discoveries coming from the various archeological projects which are presently being carried out in the Tarascan region. The dissemination of archeological research is a dynamic and continually evolving process.
From Morelia, take the Federal Highway 120 Morelia-Patzcuaro and follow the exit for Quiroga. The road to the archeological zone starts at the exit of this town.
From Morelia, take the old road to Guadalajara and turn south at Quiroga.
|A pioneer ecological museum, incorporating the history of the flora and fauna of this ancient human enclave, showing the development of Xochicalco culture over more than a thousand years.||The Xochicalco Site Museum exists to complement the experience of those visiting the archeological zone. It does so by informing them about pre-Hispanic history while preserving and protecting remains found on site, as well as obeying the guiding principle of sustainability. Visitors can interact with the museum through exhibits, activities, workshops, conferences, courses, and a cinema and theater.|
The Museum’s collection consists of archeological pieces recovered from the zone at different stages of its surveying and excavation. These range from the simplest pottery to highly complex sculptures decorated with intricate symbols.
Conceived by the Mexican architect Rolando J. Dada y Lemus and occupying more than 4.4 acres, it is the first ecological museum in the world. It conveys and uses natural light, solar cells to transform sunlight into electricity, and captures rainwater on its roofs for storage in underground tanks, whilst wastewater is treated for watering the gardens.
The Xochicalco Site Museum has six galleries and was inaugurated in 1996 to display objects from the archeological explorations of recent years, including the sculpture known as the “Red Man.” It also displays the history of Xochicalco from the eighth to the tenth century, as well as analyzing territorial aspects, trade relations with other towns and the close relationship the people of Xochicalco had with the flora and fauna. Moreover, it reveals their different social strata, the importance of war and the priesthood to their society, the city’s architectural elements, their skill at manufactuing both religious and everyday working objects. It evokes the importance of the ritual associated with the Mesoamerican ballgame, as well as conveying the atmosphere of their residential spaces with the recreation of a dwelling.
Visitors can appreciate the eastern side of the pre-Hispanic city through a large window in the building’s introductory gallery, which is also used for displaying temporary exhibits.
|Since the eighth century BC the ancient Tlaxcalan culture ascribed women preeminent roles as givers of life, wise women and governors. This was exceptional in Mesoamerica. The museum has a multitude of artifacts testifying to the fact: ceramics, ornaments, offerings and utensils.||Opened in 1995, the museum’s aim is to conserve and disseminate the archeological discoveries from the 1969-70 excavation season directed by the German archeologist Bodo Spranz, and from the Xochitecatl Project from 1993-94. It displays 343 pieces of which roughly 80% demonstrate and symbolize the importance of women in pre-Columbian Tlaxcalan culture. Xochitecatl itself means “person of the flowers,” someone whose business was with the flowers, who belonged to the flowery lineage. The offering figurines found at Xochitecatl principally represent the female cycle from maternity, birth, child rearing, old age and death, while portraying women holding the important social status of governors or queens of the region, which was not common among pre-Hispanic civilizations of Mesoamerica. It displays pre-Hispanic relics of one the most ancient civilizations which began around 750 BC and lasted up to 950 AD.|
The museum is in a single-story building with around 750 square feet divided into two sections. One is in a covered space. It displays everyday vessels, pre-Hispanic incense burners, a variety of utensils, figurines of women, babies in cradles and pregnant women, ornamental objects and components of offerings such as necklaces, knives, green stone plaques and ear flares from the Epiclassic to the Late Preclassic (650-1000). The outdoor section displays pieces of anthropomorphic and zoomorphic carved stone and a few variants of these.
From Mexico City take Federal Highway 150 as far as the exit for San Rafael Tenanyecac (km 99), continue to San Miguel del Milagro and then towards the Cacaxtla Archeological Zone.
|An Acolhua city neighboring the state of Tlaxcala with a conflict-riven border, but also an important trading point during the hegemony of Teotihuacan and Texcoco. Part of the force of Pánfilo de Narváez, who fought against Hernán Cortés, was captured here, a critical event which left numerous remains.||The archeological site of Zultepec-Tecoaque is in the Municipality of Calpulalpan in Tlaxcala. The former Santo Domingo de Tequixtla Ranch, within the bounds of the archeological site, was fitted out as the site museum, opening to the public on November 28, 2012. |
Its objective is to share with visitors the reconstruction of a page in the history of the conquest of Mexico, the result of interdisciplinary research bringing together anthrophysical studies and a detailed review of historical sources.
A tour of the museum begins with visitor orientation. A text in the museum entrance introduces the ancient settlement, its regional history and its relationship to the conquest of Mexico, as well as the events which took place on this site.
The display features approximately 150 archeological finds from two periods of pre-Hispanic history, the Classic (250-650), and the Postclassic (1300-1521), as well as from the moment at which contact took place between the region’s Mesoamerican inhabitants and the Europeans with their indigenous allies (1520-1521). From the Classic period we can see archeological pieces which represent domestic and religious activities. From the Postclassic there is a unique polychrome piece known as an octecomatl (pulque pot), which is accompanied by an explanation of the pulque trade and pulque consumption.
From the period of the conquest there is a display of the mass burial of captives from the Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz caravan who were sacrificed in ceremonies during calendar festivities.
|The Great Teocalli (temple) that amazed the Conquistadors remains a testament to the magnificence of the Tlatoani chiefs and the religiosity of their people; it was also the cosmic center of Mexica rule. A unique museum showing the remains of the original construction and its valuable monuments.|
This is one of the most important museums in Mexico’s capital city. Inaugurated on October 12, 1987 it provides a home for the artefacts uncovered during the first season of archeological excavations carried out at the Templo Mayor site between 1978 and 1982. This work brought to light a collection of more than 7,000 objects, as well as the remains of Tenochtitlan’s Templo Mayor—literally Great Temple—and some adjacent buildings. The original exhibition design was based on the same layout as the Templo Mayor itself, a place of worship dedicated to two divine beings: Huitzilopochtli, the sun god of war and patron of the Mexica people, whose shrine can be found on the southern side of the building; and Tlaloc, god of rain, who had a direct connection to agriculture, and whose temple is located to the north of the complex. The first four galleries focus on Huitzilopochtli and war in general, while the final four are devoted to Tlaloc, agriculture, and the Mexica people’s use of natural resources. This explains why today’s museum has two entrances.
Visitors to the museum can learn about the history of the archeological work carried out at the site, where discoveries have been made ever since the late vice-regal period, and excavations are ongoing as part of the Urban Archeology Program. Exhibits focus on religious rituals and sacrifices, with examples of the tributes exacted by the Mexica from their subjugated peoples and details of their vast trading network; on objects related to the god Huitzilopochtli; on the worship of the god Tlaloc and how he was represented; on local flora and fauna in pre-Hispanic times; on the chinampas, man-made islands used by the Mexica to grow crops; and finally on the vice-regal period from its beginnings until the nineteenth century, and what has survived into the twentieth century.
|This is where the Fire God, Aj Pakal Than, reigned in the 18th century AD, whose funeral offerings are exhibited, together with a collection of jewellery and other pieces made of shells, bone and stone from this great Maya city, built of clay bricks bearing extraordinary reliefs.||The state of Tabasco is mainly a broad coastal plain, crossed by a great many rivers, making for soils rich in clay of different colors and textures. The Maya of Comalcalco, or Joy’Chan of antiquity, used clay as the primary material for making ornaments, small sculptures, funerary urns, pipes, spindle whorls (malacates), musical instruments, vessels and spoons for preparing or serving food, as well as thousands of bricks used to build houses and temples.|
The Comalcalco site museum conserves and exhibits a collection of these objects which allows visitors to imagine the stews and drinks prepared in these recipients, and the type of clothing the people wore and how this city’s inhabitants liked to adorn themselves. Lovers of mathematics can also take a challenge to work out the number of bricks it took to build just one of the buildings in Comalcalco. This is based on the dimensions of the bricks, naturally.
The museum’s artifacts come from two collections, the first belonging to the teacher Rosendo Taracena in the 1910s, and the other belonging to the poet Carlos Pellicer prior to 1972. It was not until June 16, 1984 that INAH established the first site museum in Tabasco at Comalcalco, based on a plan by Amalia Cardós. Ten years later the space was renovated, reopening on October 8, using a plan worked out by Román Piña, Ricardo Armijo and Mario Pérez. In 2012 the space was extended with a second gallery prepared by Ricardo Armijo and Miriam Judith Gallegos with a new plan and new contents. The exhibition also expanded with the display of a few previously unseen pieces that had been discovered during the most recent archeological excavations.
The Comalcalco Site Museum is a public space dedicated to understanding and questioning the present though the past, allowing us to discuss the place of man and his context through history. It is a melting pot of human interaction which safeguards the common heritage, the root of identity.
From Villahermosa, take Federal Highway 180 towards Cárdenas, turn off at the La Isla junction for Cunduacán and continue to Comalcalco.
From the Port of Veracruz, take Federal Highway 150 towards Cárdenas, and then Federal Highway 187 towards Comalcalco.
|On the site of the former archeologists’ shelter, the museum was built in 1930 and was recently renovated. Tizatlan was one of the four fiefdoms of the Republic of Tlaxcala alongside Tepeticpac, Ocotelulco and Quiahuixtlan and it has structural remains from the late pre-Hispanic era, together with a very early Christian chapel.||Up to 2010 the site museum was in the adapted former “camp” building used during the site’s archeological excavations since the 1930s. The museum was opened to the public in October 1998 during the anniversary of the founding of the city of Tlaxcala by royal license on October 3, 1525. As part of a major maintenance program to the building carried out by the Tlaxcala INAH Regional Center in 2010 it was decided to transfer the archeological material on display to the Tlaxcala Regional Museum, while the graphic supports were safeguarded in the store of the Tizatlan archeological site. The site consists of a complex of structures with elements from the pre-Hispanic and early viceregal periods, namely the Great Platform, and the area of plinths and polychrome altars, and a sixteenth-century open chapel. The museum also had three small rooms built with the technology and materials of the region, such as xalnene (sandstone) and a roof from hollow clay tiles. The subject matter includes a showcase with eight archeological pieces made from clay, graphic information on the archeological finds at Tizatlan, and information on the archeologists who found them. The discovery of the polychrome altars and their symbols are described and interpreted comprehensively from an ethnohistory perspective.||Editar|
|The archeologist Jorge A. Acosta (1904-1975), discovered the great Atlantes of Tula and other finds. The museum recreates the ancient Tollan Xicocotitlan: with sculpture, ceramics, stelae, offerings and gods (Quetzañcoatl, Tecatlipoca) and the vast population, inheritors of Teotihuacan.|
Visitors can learn about the explorations—led by Mexican archeologist Jorge R. Acosta—carried out at this important site over a period of approximately 20 years. Opened in November 1982 in its new premises, the design of the single-story building provides a cultural and historical overview of the origin, development, and decline of the Toltecs and the remains of the city of Tollan Xicocotitlan ("place of the reeds near the place—or hill—of the wasps”), through five thematic sections in a U-shaped exhibition layout.
The first section offers a panorama of the city’s location, its extent, and main areas of influence, as well as the stone carving workshops. The second covers the principal ceramic collections discovered in the region, starting with a range of fine vessels from the phase known as the Coyotlatelco (perhaps meaning "where the land is impregnated with snakes"). The third area has displays of stone sculptures, with impressive artifacts including atlantes, pillars, Chac Mools, stelae, anthropomorphic and zoomorphic altar holders and flag holders, column plinths, headstones, crenels, bench moldings, offering cases and anthropomorphic and zoomorphic figures. The fourth area is focused on the gods and residential quarters that have been excavated. Finally, in the fifth section, we can appreciate various aspects related to the ceramic and stone carving workshops, with references also to the Aztec occupation discovered by Jorge R. Acosta when working on the Toltec ruins.
|This former monastery—built with stones from the pre-Hispanic temple—houses a water cistern with fragments of the oldest mural paintings of New Spain, portraying the daily life of the conquered people. It also contains remains of the pre-Hispanic city.|
This museum—located in the former monastery of Santa Cruz de Santiago Tlatelolco, behind the archeological site—opened its doors on December 15, 2011, after nine years of archeological and conservation work. The first floor displays murals and describes the excavation work, and the second shows a selection of archeological objects, including a particularly fine wooden vessel depicting Tlaloc, god of rain, one of the offerings placed there when the water cistern was sealed.
The importance of this water cistern (a constantly replenished store of drinking water) lies in the fact that its walls were covered in paintings that portray the daily life of the inhabitants of the lacustrine Valley of Mexico in the sixteenth century, following their subjugation by the Spanish conquistadors; some remnants of this artwork have been preserved. Dating back to 1536, this is the oldest mural in New Spain and was only discovered in 2002. Thanks to painstaking restoration work, around 50,000 fragments of painting have been assembled, covering an area of approximately 170 square feet, and record aspects of the life led by the indigenous peoples settled on the small islands of Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco, as well as religious symbols from the early days of New Spain’s existence. The water deposit is believed to have been built immediately after the fall of the Mexica and was inaugurated at the same time as the Imperial College of Santa Cruz de Santiago Tlatelolco—the first institution providing higher education for indigenous students. The water flowed into this deposit before continuing its journey to Tecpan or the palace to provide a supply of drinking water and to irrigate the royal orchards.
- Via Paseo de la Reforma, on the corner of Avenida Ricardo Flores Magón, Delegación Cuauhtémoc.
- Via Eje Central Lázaro Cárdenas, at the Plaza de las Tres Culturas.
- Via Metro Line 3, Tlatelolco station.
|Since 1960, the Museo del Caracol has been an educational exhibition venue (mainly for children) focusing on Mexican history and spanning the period from the War of Independence until the 1917 Constitution. The information is presented using dioramas, models, videos and information boards.|
The History Gallery was created in 1960 in a Mexico that was enjoying a boom, with its population gravitating toward the cities and a state seeking to promote modernity. The museum is the indirect result of the “Eleven Year Plan,” an initiative by Jaime Torres Bodet to combat illiteracy and improve basic education. It is also the outcome of the commemorations marking the 150th anniversary of the start of the War of Independence, and 50 years after the Mexican Revolution. The original idea was to build a space as an introduction to the National Museum of History in Chapultepec Castle, in order to explain to children and adults the defining moments in Mexican history from the end of the viceregal period until the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution.
Key figures participated in the project, among them Pedro Ramírez Vázquez, who made his first foray into the world of museums with this building. The architect designed the building to be implanted on one side of the Chapultepec Hill in the shape of a descending spiral, and as a result the museum was dubbed the Museo del Caracol—literally “the Snail Museum.” Historian Arturo Arnáiz y Freg directed the historical content; Federico Hernández Serrano put together the exhibition design; Íker Larrauri and Julio Prieto supervised the historical reconstructions; and Mario Cirett led the team of model makers.
This History Gallery was inaugurated by President Adolfo López Mateos on November 21, 1960. Cutting-edge technologies of the day were used: no ancient artefacts were to be found anywhere in the museum, which instead used dioramas, miniature theatrical representations and models. The historical settings were given sounds and small dramatizations to bring the past to life for the general public. The Museo del Caracol’s exhibitions became a landmark and served as an example for later museums to follow. Videos have now been added to its original collection.
Nearest metro station: Chapultepec
Bus: Paseo de la Reforma, Cto. Bicentennial
|This was an important trading center both before and after the Conquest. With the construction of the Dominican convent (finished in 1575) it maintained this character as well as being an important center for evangelization. A notable collection of Viceroyalty objects both religious and civic.||Editar|
|“The nation’s arms are covered in glory” wrote general Zaragoza in his war report. He commanded the infantry and the forts of Loreto and Guadalupe. The fort of Guadalupe’s exhibitions tells its own story, victory at the Battle of Puebla and the triumph of the Republic.||The museum commemorates the Battle of Puebla of May 5, 1862, (“Cinco de Mayo”) against the invading army of the Second French Empire. The Fort of Guadalupe is emblematic of the city of Puebla as it, alongside the Fort of Lareto, was the site of the battle in which the forces of the eastern army of the Mexican republic triumphed under the command of General Ignacio Zaragoza. It is also closely linked to other museums, an auditorium and a conference center. The historical restoration of the site began on January 15, 1962, covering this fort, the fort of Loreto and the construction of the Cinco de Mayo Centenary Civic Center. Today the modern interactive museum tells the story of General Zaragoza’s victory, giving the history of the building over several stages: the Hermitage of San Cristóbal in the sixteenth century, the Church of Our Lady of Belén in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a basilica-shaped church in honor of the Virgin of Guadalupe consecrated in 1816, and a republican fort in the Battle of Puebla.|
The building was already well preserved as a historical monument, but it was consolidated as a museum under the Comprehensive Rehabilitation Project of the Forts Area carried out by the government of Puebla, supported by the Defense Ministry and INAH on September 8, 2012. A site gallery safeguards a collection of about 180 items, which commemorate and elucidate the victory of the Republic. Its launch coincided with the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Puebla, and it also commemorated the death of General Zaragoza from typhoid soon after the battle, on September 8, 1862.
The background to these events is extensive. Historical research by Celia Salazar Exaire has revealed that the hill where the Fort of Guadalupe was sited was known by the pre-Hispanic inhabitants as Acueyametepec, meaning the hill covered by agave cactus with an abundance of frogs. Once the city of Puebla had been founded in 1537, the Franciscans headed by Fray Toribio de Benavente built a hermitage dedicated to San Cristóbal. Years afterwards, when it had already been converted into a church, the Bethlehemite Brothers, an order of teachers and nurses founded in Guatemala in 1656, arrived at the shrine and before the turn of the century added a hospital building. From then onwards instead of being known as the church of San Cristóbal it was known as the church of Belem (Bethlehem). In 1756 an earthquake hit the city of Puebla, extensively damaging the church. It had to be rebuilt, and reopened its doors in 1758, this time dedicated to the Virgin of Guadalupe. In the mid-eighteenth century the church had to be demolished. It was rebuilt in December 1816, and the viceregal city council rededicated it to the Virgin of Tepeyac. Since it was on a high piece of land the church was a useful lookout to watch over the entrance to the city.
With its location between the port of Veracruz and the capital of the viceroyalty, the city of Puebla soon became one of the most important sites in the land, which is why fortification work on the church began in 1816. The fortified church was useful for the protection of the city. Salazar makes the point that the work was commissioned by the city council using the labor of prisoners and with the materials paid for by the citizens. The historian also states that the ground plan suggests that the initial plan was to build a square shape with bastions, but only the north frontage and east and west curtains were ever built. In 1862 Mexico was already independent when the engineer Joaquín Colombres prepared the fortification to deal with the threat of a French invasion. He improved the ditches and adapted the escarpment of the hill to create a natural defense.
The main section of the museum focuses on the Battle of Puebla. The exhibition shows that President Juárez ordered General Ignacio Zaragoza to take charge of Mexican strategy. Zaragoza was born in Espíritu Santo Bay in the state of Coahuila y Tejas, on the present-day Texas coast but at that time in Mexican territory. General Zaragoza commanded the Eastern Army from his quarters in the church and the Convent of Nuestra Señora de los Remedios in the city of Puebla, which is today at Calle 20 Norte, between 8 Oriente and 6 Oriente. Under his command were Generals Felipe Berriozábal, Francisco Lamadrid, Miguel Negrete and Antonio Álvarez, as well as Colonel Porfirio Díaz, among other officers. Troop numbers amounted to around 5,400 men, who came from Oaxaca, the “State of the Valley of Mexico,” San Luis Potosi and naturally also from the State of Puebla.
The museum describes how the battle began at about 11 a.m. with a fusillade from the Fort of Guadalupe, announced by the ringing of bells in the city. The first clash took place on the hill of Acueyametepec when the 6th Infantry Batallion commanded by General Negrete and formed of men from the Sierra Norte de Puebla, turned back an enemy advance. In the second clash the French gained ground, but their column was turned back for the second time by the combined gunfire and bayonet fighting of the Mexicans. The troops of our country began to corner them and the enemy started to retreat more generally. At 2 p.m. the French formation and tactics had been practically neutralized, but they carried on fighting.
The museum also shows that after coming down from the hill the French reorganized and tried to attack the suburb of Xonaca, where the sappers and Reforma troops commanded by Díaz turned them back. Because of the strength and daring of these Mexican soldiers, once again with bayonets drawn and with cavalry charges with drawn sabers, the French were finally forced to halt their advance and to retreat again. Some of their formations even fled in disorder. On the enemy’s left flank, the battle continued with the third charge of the French army. Around 3.30 p.m. the enemy general, the Count of Lorencez had formed a new column which he directed again at the Fort of Guadalupe, once more without success. The retreating enemy then headed towards Atlixco with heavy losses in men and a great loss of materiel. The exhibition shows that intense rain underscored the final defeat of the invaders.
|The beautiful chapel of the Virgin Mary, the chaplain’s house, a military barracks and four bastions make up this strange, airy building on a lofty site whose seven galleries tell the story of the fort in the wars of Independence, Reform, Intervention and the Revolution.||One of the most important artifacts of the Museum of Non-Intervention is the Fort of Loreto itself, faithful witness of its own history. In the mid-seventeenth century construction began with the support of the lay people and the secular clergy on a chapel dedicated to the Virgin of Loreto, the Italian protector of the family. Celia Salazar Exaire relates that the chapel came about at the request of a devotee of the Virgin of Loreto called José de la Cruz Sarmiento, who wished to thank the Virgin for saving his life after he was hit by lightning in 1655. The chapel was built on top of the hill of San Cristóbal, following a series of guidelines in terms of its structure. During the seventeenth century all churches dedicated to the Virgin of Loreto had to have the same measurements as the holy house in Loreto in Italy. In addition to the chapel a house was built for the chaplain, with a cistern to water the garden. The design was retained until the eighteenth century when the chapel was rebuilt in a more luxurious style. |
Religious worship continued until the 1810s, even though the site, but not the chapel, had been used as a barracks from the end of the eighteenth century. At the height of the War of Independence in 1813, the viceregal authorities of Puebla proposed to transfer the city’s munitions dump to the site, and the building of the fort as such begun in 1815. It was completed in 1817. The Fort of Loreto is designed on a square plan with bastions built on its corners, the purpose of these corner stations being to open up wider fields of fire. The names of the bastions are: San José, El Carmen, Santa Bárbara and Guadalupe. As Salazar narrates, the construction of the fort was commissioned by the artillery commander Manuel Varela Ulloa, and after 1832 the Fort of Loreto started to see constant military activity. Its location made the observation of potential enemy military movements much easier.
The exhibition shows that from then onwards the fort was used in various conflicts throughout Mexico’s turbulent nineteenth century, whether between political factions such as federalists against centralists, liberals against conservatives or to counter serious foreign attacks such as the American invasion in the 1847 Mexican-American War (which was actually from 1846 to 1848) and the French Intervention of 1862 to 1867. The Fort of Loreto was very important for the Mexican military in the Battle of Puebla in 1862, and it even came to be used in the Mexican Revolution in the early twentieth century.
The museum’s storyline also talks about the fort’s peacetime use as a military prison and astronomical observatory. It was even abandoned for years. In the early 1930s the brothers Ángel and Carlos Paz y Puente asked the military authorities to close the fort and to give it to them on free loan for use as a military museum.
It was opened to the public on May 5, 1936 as the Museum of the History of War, with the aim of displaying the founders’ collection of material from the periods of Independence, Reform and Revolution. Subsequently and under the management of the National Institute of Anthropology and History, it was renamed the Museum of Non-Intervention to commemorate the centenary of the defeat of French intervention on May 5, 1862, known as the Battle of Puebla.
Its collection is displayed in seven galleries, six permanent and one temporary. The range of topics covered is wide, beginning with the history of the building from 1650 up to the period known as the Restored Republic of 1867. In addition to the narratives, the visitor can see oil and acrylic paintings of various formats, uniform, weapons, documents, flags, and other military artifacts, as well as everyday social history items from the periods covered by the facility. The exhibition was redesigned in 2012.
In addition to these spaces, the fort has several canons from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries on the esplanade, as well as in the fort's four bastions. Some of these were very likely fired on May 5, 1862.
From the central plaza, take Boulevard 5 de Mayo, turn on Av. 2 north and enter by Calzada de los Fuertes.
By public transport, take route 72 or 72A.
From the bus station, take route 61 or the Libertad-Resurreción route.
|The Maya language is spoken by all social strata in the Yucatan peninsula. The Maya are present today, yesterday and in the remote past. This museum explains their long, unbroken history with numerous examples of sculpture, pottery, houses, the calendar, work, writing, etc.|
Display covering the development of Mayan culture from pre-Hispanic times to the present day. Situated to the north of the city of Merida, Dzibilchaltun is both an archeological site and a national park. Designed by the architect Fernando González Gortázar in a contemporary style, the site museum is a dispersed complex in the forest, which clearly relates to the site on which it was built. It exhibits 700 archeological and historical artefacts summarizing 3,000 years of Mayan culture.
It consists of four exhibition halls: 1. Pergola of the Monoliths. Displaying monolithic pre-Hispanic sculptures from the states of Yucatán, Campeche and Quintana Roo along a path which leads through a garden of native plant species. 2. Mayan Archeology. Focusing on the pre-Hispanic period, with ceramic and architectural pieces from Chiapas, Campeche and Yucatán displayed to illustrate themes such as Mayan cosmology, the origins of humankind, the relationship between humans and nature, the gods, the social hierarchy, painting, writing, labor specialization and the calendar. 3. The History of Dzibilchaltún. Containing finds from the archeological excavations. It also covers contact with the Spanish and the conquest of the Mayan people, the vice-regal period and the formation of Yucatec identity. 4. Mayan House. Annex with a reconstruction of a typical rural Mayan building using traditional building techniques.
|Justo Sierra, considered that the ancient Mexican civilizations were based on corn (maize). This plant, domesticated and improved upon from insignificant beginnings, has an amazing long history – both natural and social – which this museum demonstrates in full, together with ancient figures of pre-Hispanic gods.||Editar|
|The history of this building and its architectural qualities intrinsically illustrate the role played by monasteries during the spiritual conquest of the Gran Chichimeca area, and the acculturation processes of the Yuriria region. Visiting its different spaces provides inspiration and insights into life in a sixteenth-century monastery.|
A museum housed in an outstanding construction—one of the finest examples of viceregal architecture and set within remarkably beautiful natural surroundings.
Rafael Villagómez Garibay worked from 1918 as an inspector of heritage buildings in Yuriria, a position which put him in charge of the care and upkeep of the former church and monastery, which had become dilapidated over the years. Given the building’s great artistic and historical importance, responsibility for the former monastery of Saint Augustine in Yuriria was handed over, in 1921, to Mexico’s heritage monument department (Inspección General de Monumentos Históricos y Artísticos). In 1993, it was declared a national monument to ensure its conservation and then placed under the control of the department of colonial and republican monuments (Dirección de Monumentos Coloniales y de la República). In 1939, the building was placed under the auspices of the newly established National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH). From that point and until 1992, the museum’s exhibition design was limited to an informal series of reproductions of pre-Hispanic artefacts, along with some originals; some examples of viceregal religious sculpture and painting were also on display. After 1992, the museum was adapted for the exhibition of its collections of pre-Hispanic and viceregal cultural objects: the work of Chupícaro and Purépecha cultures, as well as some religious sculptures and oil paintings. However, of all the important works in the museum, by far the most significant is the large cloister with its adjoining spaces, a masterpiece of colonial architecture.
The Augustinian evangelizer and philosopher, Friar Alonso de la Vera Cruz, gave his blessing in November 1550 to the first stone for what would eventually become, in the words of the chronicler, Friar Diego de Basalenque, “...the first wonder of New Spain’s factories [constructions].” Building work was supervised by Friar Diego de Chávez (nephew of the conquistador, Pedro de Alvarado), appointed as the Superior of the new Augustinian mission in the Chichimec region, and the contractor (lead builder and architect) was Pedro del Toro of Castilla la Vieja, who was responsible for the building’s majestic presence and original decorations. It took nine years to complete the monastery and its impressive church; the first Mass was held to celebrate Corpus Christi (60 days after Easter) in 1559.
Today the only remains of the constructions and annexes comprising the monastery in Yuriria are the church, auxiliary spaces and cloister. The space where the atrium and cemetery used to be has been turned into the city’s Alameda and a large platform that doubles up as an atrium. The church is now run by the secular clergy and the cloister is under the auspices of the INAH.
The entrance to the monastery is through the “alms-giving gateway” (where the destitute were attended to, and where food, clothing, furniture and all perishable items consumed in the monastery were received), formed by four semicircular arches with buttresses at the base of each column, and columns affixed to a wall or another column. The entrance has a simple Plateresque entrance (moderately decorated with straight lines), in common with other sixteenth-century monastery buildings. The construction is built around a square patio with two corridors surrounding it on two levels, providing access to the ground floor bays (corridors with rooms on either side), as well as corridors that also provide a lobby for the top-floor cells; the “downward force” (or load) of the double barrel vault of the ground-floor corridor, and of the barrel vault on the top floor, is supported by five semi-circular arches with Corinthian style columns (distinguished, among other things, by capitals with acanthus leaf motifs), partially embedded into the buttresses; on the top floor, the columns are in a Doric style (with capitals flanked by spirals in the shape of goat horns).
The ground floor consists of the alms-giving gateway, gatehouse, lobby area (for formally welcoming visitors), the kitchen, larders, granary, “De profundis” room (where people gathered and the penitent came to say their prayers), the refectory, and the staircase leading to the top floor; the top floor housed the friars’ individual cells, communal areas (dormitories for more than one monk and for ablutions), teaching spaces, and large library.
Located in Yuriria, Guanajuato, near the border with the state of Michoacán. Highway number 43 connects Yuriria with the two states.